Live Mint | November 27 2015 | Prashant K. Nanda |
Govt plans 40% weight to face-to-face classroom, practical component in distance education courses. Although it will support the expansion of technical education, especially for the working class, industry says the system may not produce high-quality graduates.
New Delhi: The government is bringing in a new blended learning policy in which at least 40% of the programme has to be in a classroom in distance education courses for technical subjects. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), the country’s technical education regulator, on Thursday said it has formulated the policy and sent it to the human resources development ministry for approval. The idea of 100% theory in distance education in technical education will neither lead to quality education nor production of quality manpower for industry. “We are proposing at least 40% weight to face-to-face classroom and practical component in the distance education courses,” AICTE chairman Anil Sahasrabudhe said. The government stopped recognizing distance B-Tech and M-Tech courses in 2009. It lifted the ban in September saying all those who have received any certificate in distance education are eligible for government jobs, provided their courses are recognized by regulators such as the University Grants Commission. This benefited institutions such as the Indira Gandhi National Open University, a central university offering such courses. The government, however, did not clarify if from now on any institute could offer distance technical education, leaving it to regulators such as UGC and AICTE to devise a policy.
AICTE has so far held back its approval for B.Tech, M.Tech, pharmacy, hotel management and architecture courses in distance mode on grounds that such teaching compromises the quality of the education. Sahasrabudhe said soon all these courses can be legally availed of in distance learning, without compromising 40% face-to-face learning. Authorities said the move will benefit aspirants, especially working executives, and expand the scope of higher education. India’s gross enrolment ratio in higher education is at 20%. It will also help take higher education to a larger number of people. Although it will support the expansion of technical education, especially for the working class, industry says the system may not produce high-quality graduates and will not command a premium in the job market. “Expansion will bring more people into the fold of technical education. But will quality of such courses be very good? The answer is may not be. Industry always demands quality workforce and a distance-educated person may not command premium in a marketplace,” said Shalini Sharma, head, higher education wing at lobby group Confederation of India Industry. Raju Davis Parepadan, chairman of Kerala-based Holygrace Academy, which runs engineering and management colleges, said the fresh move is better than the earlier situation. However, given that classroom learning in a majority of technical education institutions is not too good, it was doubtful if giving 40% weight to classroom learning as part of mixed distance courses would improve the quality of education, he added. “Yes, you will see more people opting for such courses as it will be less expensive and less rigorous than a full-time, face-to-face course. But quality improvement may not be achieved unless the classroom learning improves,” said Parepadan said. Only 17.5% of engineering graduates were deemed employable in a 2011 survey by industry lobby Nasscom. India’s information technology industry spends nearly $1 billion a year to make them job-ready, the report said. – Courtesy
Business Standard | Press Trust of India | New Delhi November 26, 2015 |
Varsities offering engineering programmes through correspondence will soon be able to get accreditation as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is in the process of drafting a regulation for such courses in the “blended learning” category. At present, any engineering programme offered through distance learning mode is not approved by AICTE, the statutory regulator for technical courses in the country. “We have drafted a regulation for the distance learning BTech programmes under the Blended Learning category. The proposed ratio for theory and practical teaching is 60:40. “While varsities or institutions can impart theoretical knowledge through study material, the practical modules will require attendance and practical training,” AICTE Chairman Anil Sahasrabudhe told reporters here. The proposed regulation has been sent by AICTE to HRD ministry for its approval. “We are waiting for an approval from HRD ministry. An official notification will be issued once we get a nod and the recognition will be granted to offer courses from the ensuing session,” he added. While AICTE recognises MBA and MCA programmes offered through distance mode, it has always followed a policy of not approving BTech, MTech, pharmacy, hotel management, and architecture courses through correspondence. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) had in 2013 withdrawn its decision of recognising these courses in perpetuity for equivalence in central government jobs after concerns were raised over the quality of such programmes.
Railways, had also expressed reservation in hiring candidates who had BTech degrees pursued under distance learning mode. However, the Ministry had in September this year lifted the ban saying all degrees, diplomas and certificates – including those in technical education – awarded through open and distance mode, stood automatically recognised for employment to central jobs, provided the courses have been approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC). The AICTE Chairman, also released the survey report of industry linked technical institutes conducted by AICTE in association with Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The survey which is in its fourth edition, is conducted by the two bodies to award the best institutions in 24 categories. AICTE recognizes 12,234 established and emerging institutes offering Engineering, Management, Pharmacy and Architecture programmes. This year, 1,225 institutes were in race for the awards which will be announced on December 2 here. However, none of the IITs and IIMs participated submitted their entries for the awards.- Courtesy
AICTE on Distance Engineering Courses : NITI Central, – November 27, 2015 |
The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) had in 2013 withdrawn its decision of recognising these courses in perpetuity for equivalence in central government jobs after concerns were raised over the quality of such programmes. Railways, had also expressed reservation in hiring candidates who had BTech degrees pursued under distance learning mode. However, the Ministry had in September this year lifted the ban saying all degrees, diplomas and certificates – including those in technical education – awarded through open and distance mode, stood automatically recognised for employment to central jobs, provided the courses have been approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC). The AICTE Chairman, also released the survey report of industry linked technical institutes conducted by AICTE in association with Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The survey which is in its fourth edition, is conducted by the two bodies to award the best institutions in 24 categories. AICTE recognizes 12,234 established and emerging institutes offering Engineering, Management, Pharmacy and Architecture programmes. This year, 1,225 institutes were in race for the awards which will be announced on December 2 here. However, none of the IITs and IIMs participated submitted their entries for the awards. – Courtesy
Hindustan Times | Ancy Philip | November 26, 2015 |
Ancy Philip (second from left) an engineering student from Anna University, Chennai, and the first recipient of the US $10,000 Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship.. (HT photo)
I am an engineering student from Anna University, Chennai, and the first recipient of the US $10,000 Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship. I came to know about the scholarship through my college bulletin board. I discussed the opportunity with my professor and got a letter of recommendation. Next, I prepared a statement of purpose, expressing my love for computer science, design, cars and leadership. I was surprised to be selected. The scholarship honours former Ford Motor Company CEO Alan Mulally’s expertise in science and engineering. It is a part of a global initiative from Ford. I’m looking forward to connect with the company’s corporate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) strategic initiative.
A meeting with Wendy Hall (professor of computer science at the University of Southampton, England) during an ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) meeting in 2012, boosted my interest in computer science. Consequently, I took up an undergraduate course in computer science at the College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University. I’m in my final year. I fell in love with cars during a car exhibition in my college. My final-year project is related to smart communication between vehicles to reduce accident risks and noise pollution. After graduating, I want to pursue research in computer science that will utilise my learning in databases and algorithms. Machine learning and artificial intelligence are other fields I’m interested in. I also want to mentor students from underrepresented populations. – (The views expressed by the author are her personal) – Courtesy : Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship
The New Indian Express | By Express News Service | 26th November 2015 |
Uddhab Bharali : This man from Assam has invented over 100 engineering devices to solve agricultural problems
All India Roundup | 27 November,2015 |
India was always a fertile land for innovations. The most notable Indian inventions range from number Zero to some high end technologies that we use every day. Today, we would like to share a story of one man who has done about 118 innovations starting from the late 1980s. He proved that innovation is not a high-end activity that takes place only in sophisticated laboratories. Take a look at some of his wonderful innovations. Assam-born mechanical engineer Uddhab Bharali, who dropped out of college in 1987 because of acute poverty was excelled in academics and was notorious for asking too many questions. Born to a businessman father in Lakhimpur of Assam, the fact that he was academically extraordinarily bright was of no consequence at home.In 1988, when his family was in debt, he decided to start a polyethene making business. However, instead of spending about a lakh rupees on buying a machine, he designed his own for about 67,000 rupees when the company made machines were priced at Rs. 4 lakh. This was the start, after that the list of his innovations increased. He developed more than 85 engineering devices for different purposes in agriculture. Out of these thirteen are commercialised. Although he continued building products for rural and commercial purposes, his talent and innovations had been brought to the public knowledge for the very first time in 1995, when famous story-writer and novelist Arnab Jan Deka wrote an article about him and his innovations in ‘Dainik Assam’ newspaper. Within a few months, Arnab Jan Deka wrote the first ever English article on Uddhab Bharali in another English daily The Assam Express. Both these articles by the famous author-technocrat made Bharali a household name in Assam, and paved the way for wider appreciation and recognition of his talent, even drawing the attention of Discovery Channel and other global media. In 2005, the National Innovation Foundation took him aboard as a grassroots innovator, where he soon came up with a design of a benchtop pomegranate de-seeding machine. His machine was recognized as the first of its kind not only in India but across the world. With this invention, Bharali even entered into an online voting competition for the NASA Exceptional Technology Achievement Medal in 2012. The serial innovator has since then built a mini tea plant which helps small-time farmers, a portable cassava peeler that can process up to 5 kg of cassava per minute, an areca nut peeling machine with a capacity to peel 100-120 nuts in a minute, a garlic peeling machine, a paddy thresher, a tobacco leaf cutter, a cane stripping machine, a Safed Musli peeling machine, a brass utensil polishing machine, a jatropha de-seeder, a mechanized weeding machine, and a trench digger, chopper for cattle and fisheries feed; among over hundred other inventions, mostly solving problems in the field of agriculture. Many of his innovations are popular in foreign countries. The Central Silk board sought his guidance to redesign a sophisticated reeling machine. He also designed a stevia pulveriser & passion fruit gel extractor for North Eastern Region Community Resource Management Project (NERCRMP).
In 2007, he was awarded with ‘Shristi Samman Award’. He is a recipient of ‘President’s Grassroots Innovation Award’, 2009. He is the winner of engineering design contest organized by NASA Tech ‘Create the Future Design Contest’ for the year 2012 and 2013. He is also the recipient of ‘Rashtriya Ekta Samman, in 2013. He was one of the speakers in TEDxISMDhanbad held in October 2014 . Mr. Bharaliis also a resource scholar for the Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship and a technical consultant to Rural Technology Action Group (RUTAG) for the development of technology at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati. In one of his interviews, Uddhab said, “I believe that developing new machines comes naturally to me and it is this flair which helped me repay my father’s debts by starting a polyethene film making industry to cater to the demand from the surrounding tea estates. Even now, I have 53 projects on hand and I am currently responsible for an average of eight projects a month.” Mr. Bharali has also set up a research workshop in his hometown to help local communities and industries solve their technological needs in his hometown of North Lakshimpur on the banks of the river Brahmaputra. He uses the money he makes in housing 20 underprivileged kids, providing them with food, amenities, and training them in technology. – Read More…
CBSE has released the Admission Notice for JEE (Main) 2016, for engineering admissions to institutes around the country. The salient points of the notice are:
- Application Process opens: December 1, 2015
Application Process closes: December 31, 2015
Applications shall be online
Application Fee can be paid online via credit/debit card or offline through E-Challan submitted at any branch of Syndicate Bank, Canara Bank, ICICI Bank or HDFC Bank.
The complete process is online and students will not need to send any physical copy to JEE (Main) Secretariat or CBSE.
- Date of Birth: October 1, 1991 (General Category candidates) or October 1, 1986 (SC, ST, PwD category candidates)
Appearance in Qualifying Exam: Students should have appeared for their Class 12 exam in 2014, 2015 or 2016 as their first appearance in that exam. Students who had appeared in 2013 and re-appeared in 2014 will not be eligible.
Maximum 3 attempts allowed for appearing for JEE (Main)
Offline Exam (Pen & Paper): Sunday, April 3, 2016
- Paper 1 (For Engineering & Technology Programmes): 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM
Paper 2 (For Architecture & Planning Programmes): 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Online Exam (Computer Based): For Paper 1 only
- Saturday, April 9, 2016 and Sunday, April 10, 2016
First shift: 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM
Second shift (if required): 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
The states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Nagaland, and Odisha will be accepting the JEE (Main) scores for state-level engineering college admissions for the first time. JEE (Main) rank lists for the NITs, CFTIs & other institutions will be prepared using 40% weightage to the Class 12 marks (after normalization) and 60% weightage to the JEE (Main) score. The JEE (Main) website can be visited by clicking here and the notice can be downloaded by clicking here. Meanwhile, the JEE (Advanced) organizing committee, Joint Admission Board (JAB) 2016 has also released the JEE (Advanced) 2016 Information Brochure. The salient points of the brochure are:
- Registration starts Friday, April 29, 2016
Registration ends Wednesday, May 4, 2016
Registration will be fully online
Scanned documents will need to be uploaded online
Registration fees will need to be paid. The process of paying the fees will be available on the site.
- Age Limit: Same as JEE (Main) above
Maximum 2 attempts allowed for appearing for JEE (Advanced)
Appearance in Qualifying Exam: Students should have appeared for their Class 12 exam in 2015 or 2016 only as their first appearance in that exam. Only those students who had appeared in 2014 but whose results were declared after June 2014 will also be eligible.
JEE (Main) performance: Candidates should be among the top scoring 200,000 candidates of JEE (Main) 2016, and should have scored positive marks. As per the available reservations, the number of candidates to be eligible for JEE (Advanced) 2016 will be: 101,000 candidates in Open Category, 54,000 candidates in OBC, 30,000 candidates in SC, 15,000 candidates in ST.
Candidates should not have been admitted in or accepted any course at the IITs/ISM previously. However, those who did not accept the seat during the JoSAA process in 2015 will be eligible.
- Sunday, May 22, 2016
Paper 1: 9:00 AM to 12:00 PM
Paper 2: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
PwD students using a scribe will be allowed 1 hour extra as compensatory time.
The Times of India |
KOLKATA: An alumnus of BE College, Shibpur – now an IIEST – has offered to donate Rs 350 crore to set up a 200-bed hospital on the campus. This is more than the Rs 230 crore the Union government has sanctioned for the medical college to come up at IIT-Kharagpur. Mahadev Kundu, a 1968 batch civil engineering graduate from BE College, works as a consultant in the US. His only wish is that the hospital be named after his wife, who is a very successful doctor there. The proposed name is Usha Kundu MD Medical College and Hospital. If this project comes true, it will put the country’s first IIEST – a nearly 160-year-old institution – in a different league altogether. “IIEST has over 150 years of experience in engineering education in India. Therefore, it is a natural choice to house such a modern medical school to implement the convergence of engineering, science, technology and medicine. It has existing teaching staff for most of the basic science, medical technology and information technology courses in the existing facilities,” reads Kumdu’s proposal.
An official at IIEST said Kundu selected his alma mater because he has a “strong bond with the institution”. “The proposal is to set up the medical college and hospital in the name of his wife who is a doctor,” the official said. IIEST director Ajay Roy has placed the proposal before the senate, where the main concern during the discussions was finding the land for the hospital. Roy plans to meet state government officials and request them to allocate 10 acres. “The proposed hospital needs practicing physicians and surgeons from the private sector to bring patients for surgeries. Kolkata has a large pool of competent physicians and surgeons. We will be able to recruit teaching staff. The institute is an ideal location and the medical school and hospital, if it becomes a reality, can cater to a large segment of Kolkata’s population,” Roy said. “I hope chief minister Mamata Banerjee will consider the proposal to allot land once we approach her. The HRD ministry, too, will consider our proposal sympathetically and give the requisite permissions.”
The proposal specifies that the hospital-cum-medical school will aim to provide a “biomedical science-centric model of education”, enhanced by convergence of engineering science and technology. It envisages 3D anatomy classrooms and integrating healthcare with smartphones, tabs and other futuristic devices. “They (the Kundus) have proposed to design the medical college by fusing engineering, computing, health science and medicine,” added Roy. “The proposal also mentions research on drugs. We may also set up a centre for forensic medicine,” he added. The project envisages creating a patient transport system, continuing education for practicing doctors, telemedicine in every town and live video telecast of surgeries to MBBS students. “Kundu Charitable Trust will be willing to donate majority of its assets to the medical college and hospital once it is approved. Funds will be distributed over a 10-year period from the retirement account and remainder as per their estate planning documents. There will be other sources of income from donations, grants, tuition fee of students. The initial fund will be for building the hospital and part of the medical school for 100 students a year. Rest of the facility will be developed over the next 10 years,” says the proposal. – Courtesy
Gauri Kohli, Hindustan Times, New Delhi | Nov 25, 2015 |
Engineering and medicine aspirants will have to prepare themselves for some major changes likely in the national-level entrance tests for engineering and medicine in the next couple of years. Before taking the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) for engineering, aspirants will have to appear for an online aptitude test which will determine whether they are fit to take the JEE. From 2016, the top two lakh students will be eligible for the JEE (Advanced) instead of the top 1.5 lakh. Joint counseling will continue to be done for NITs and IITs. “In future, Class 12 Board exam marks may not be considered. But students should not neglect Board exams. The changes are aimed to bring down the number of vacant seats which will have a positive impact on aspirants,” says PV Balaji, former chairman, JEE. There are changes in store in the medical entrance too. Those aiming to pursue medicine may get only one chance to prove themselves as there are plans to have a common entrance test for undergraduate and postgraduate medical courses across the country. The Medical Council of India (MCI) has given its nod to a proposal that supports the idea of a common medical test. Experts say the expected changes will have a lot of impact on the student intake quality and will also reduce burden on students.
The Committee of Eminent Persons (CEP), constituted by the IIT Council, has recommended major changes in the JEE structure with effect from 2017. While the exam will continue to be held in two stages, online aptitude tests to check the scientific aptitude of candidates will be held several times a year. In a report submitted to the Centre on November 5, 2015, the CEP has proposed setting up a National Testing Service (NTS) by 2016 to conduct the aptitude test. About four lakh candidates will be shortlisted for the JEE which will be on the lines of the current JEE (Advanced) by the IITs and will test the candidates in physics, chemistry and math. On the basis of their ranks more than 40,000 students will be able to apply to the IITs and NITs after common counselling. Another recommendation by the CEP is that the IITs should set-up a system for developing mock JEEs to better prepare candidates for the exam. “The objectives of the proposed changes include conducting a single entrance test for all Centrally-funded technical institutions and reducing financial and mental burden on the candidates and their parents,” says Professor KV Krishna, member, Joint Admissions Board of IITs.
The two-tier JEE will continue in 2016 and 2017. From next year, the top two lakh students from JEE (Main) will be allowed to appear in JEE (Advanced). Joint counselling for IITs and NITs will continue (as was done last year). Board marks will not be counted when determining the rankings (likely from 2016) for NITs and Centrally-funded technical institutions. Weightage for Board marks would be given in JEE (Main) in 2016. Medical aspirants can expect a common entrance test in the next two years. “In the October general body meeting of the MCI, the Council has backed the proposal for holding a common entrance test for undergraduate and postgraduate medical courses in colleges and deemed universities across the country and has sent its recommendations to the health ministry,” says Dr Jayshree Mehta, president, MCI. State governments currently conduct their own entrance tests. Also, candidates wanting admissions to private medical colleges and deemed universities have to take their tests, besides the AIPMT.
Impact of exam reforms
Elaborating on the impact of other changes in the engineering entrance exam, Professor Krishna says, “I do not find much use of introducing a two-stage exam for admission to the IITs. The common counselling, however, is one of the very good things that ever happened for the institutes and candidates. This has reduced the number of vacant seats in the participating institutes. However, there should be more number of rounds of allotment so that the candidates can get better seat preferences among their choices.” A National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test (NEET) for admission to medical colleges has also been scrapped. After several petitions that challenged MCI’s notification on NEET, the Supreme Court quashed the notification for holding common entrance tests for MBBS, BDS and postgraduate medical courses. “NEET was a great way to screen aspiring doctors. A single entrance examination will reduce the harassment caused to aspirants who have to travel from one city to the other and spend money to appear for multiple entrance examinations all over India,” says Dr Arun Agarwal, professor of excellence, ENT, Maulana Azad Medical College.
Key changes likely to happen
# From next year, the top two lakh students from JEE (Main) will be allowed to appear in JEE (Advanced)
# An online aptitude test will be held several times a year to check the scientific aptitude of candidates from 2016
# Board marks will not be counted for giving rankings (likely from 2016) for NITs and Centrally-funded technical institutions
# Weightage for Board marks would be given in JEE (Main) in 2016
# A common entrance test for undergraduate and postgraduate medical courses in colleges and deemed universities across India soon.
Candidates to be shortlisted for JEE which will be on the lines of the current JEE (Advanced)
Candidates will be able to apply to IITs and NITs, based on their ranks. – Courtesy
The Times of India |
NEW DELHI: RSS ideologue Dinanath Batra, whose suggestions for reforms in education have been termed as “saffronization” attempt, on Tuesday claimed that the books and syllabuses taught in the country’s schools and colleges change as and when the government changes and called for making education politics-free. “In our country, when the government changes, we see all books are being changed, syllabus also changes which creates an atmosphere of tension. When Murli Manohar Joshi used to be the education minister, all books were changed. When the next government came, all books were changed again,” Batra said addressing a seminar on “New Education Policy” at Delhi University. Founder of the Shiksha Sanskriti Utthan Nyas, Batra, who has been an advocate of moral science and cultural education in schools, said, “Education should be autonomous as Election Commission or Supreme Court. There should be no politics in education but only education in politics.” He also called for institution of an Indian Education Service (IES) to ensure that only those people work in the sector who have the expertise to do so.
“There should be an Indian Education Service. Those who have romance for the field of education should come first and sit for the examination. Once they qualify they should be trained in nuances of primary and higher education education. “The field and policy making should not be in hands of bureaucrats but educationists. One bureaucrat is finance secretary today, he will take over commerce tomorrow and then education. Such an important sector can’t be left to someone who is jack of all trades but master of none,” he said. Batra, who is on a panel formed by the Haryana government to bring in qualitative changes in the education system, also said that the entire education system needs a rehaul and suggested that social service be made obligatory in schools and colleges. “The education system needs a rehaul in the country, the methodology needs to be changed. Also education needs to be made inclusive. It is important to amend the education system in such a way that the universities and schools can be of benefit to the specific area they are located in,” he said.- Courtesy
The Times of India |
PUNE: Educational institutions in the country have coldshouldered the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) launched by the Union ministry of human resource and development launched four years ago. More than 200 universities (including autonomous), 18,000 colleges and over 6,000 vocational education institutions have failed to respond to the survey’s details despite continuous follow-up from the ministry . The survey is an indicator of educational parameters like gross enrolment ratio, pupil-teacher ratio, gender parity index and per student expenditure. In the past four years, the survey has reported that the number of higher educational institutions in the country is growing each year but not once in four years has there been 100% response from institutions. In order to find out if colleges and universities in the country meet the parameters set by the MHRD, a country-wide annual survey was launched in 2011. Besides finding the number of students in higher education in the country , the survey also aimed at improving the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in different sections of the society including reserved category , women among others.
The ministry has decided to improve the GER from 12% in the 11th five-year plan to 30% by 2020. A reminder to fill details of college online by the ministry is being made regularly as soon as the survey for the particular year was launched. Despite repeated attempts, the MHRD has failed to achieve 100% response from institutions. W N Gade, vice-chancellor of Savitribai Phule Pune University, said it was not just the AISHE survey , the same poor response is evident when it comes to issues like accreditation or information sharing. “Colleges and institutions in the country shy away from the survey details. Many of them do not want to share facts and figures because the survey tries to find out every small detail related to the institution including infrastructure, funding, faculty ratio, salaries among others.They do not reveal the correct information because they are afraid of action from government. If the true details do come out, many colleges would shut down,” Gade added.
Educationist and president of the state federation of principals, Nandakumar Nikam, said the responsibility is not just with the union ministry, but the state government must also make enough efforts to ensure that all colleges in its jurisdiction fulfill the mandatory requirement to complete the survey . “If the institutions have not filled up details, the state government must take prompt action and follow up with the institutions. Many institutions also do it on purpose to hide details about the college, especially where there is low enrolment in engineering and management institutes. However, if the state government does proper follow up, these institutes shying away from survey intentionally can be pointed out and acted upon immediately ,” he added. The survey reveals that there is a constant rise in the number of colleges, vocational institutes and also autonomous and deemed universities but many still shy away from providing information in the survey. — Courtesy